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A review on potentially inappropriate drug prescribing using beers criteria 2015

Sravani Lanke, Tejasree Bandi, Srimath Tirumala Konduru Sridhar, Jakka Venkata Srinivas




To review the literature of potentially inappropriate drug prescribing in elderly patients using Beers Criteria (BC) 2015


Keywords including potentially inappropriate drug prescribing, Beers criteria 2015, elderly patients were used to search in Pub Med from January 2018 to April 2019.Ten relevant articles were found that applied Beers Criteria 2015 in various healthcare settings.

Prevalence, nature and extent of inappropriate drug usage and factors associated with such inappropriate drugs were reviewed. Prevalence of inappropriate drug usage ranged from 4.69% in community pharmacies to 63% among tertiary care hospitals. The most commonly prescribed inappropriate medications include Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs), Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Opioid analgesics, cardiovascular agents, and Central Nervous System (CNS) medications such as Benzodiazepines, Hypnotics and Anti Psychotics.

Factors associated with inappropriate drug use include polypharmacy, prolonged hospitalization, and chronic diseases. Potentially inappropriate drug use resulted in various drug-related problems like Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), increased risk of falls, fractures and rehospitalisation.


A significantly higher prevalence of Potentially Inappropriate Medication (PIM) use was observed among hospitalized patients with a high prevalence of polypharmacy. These results necessitate a nationwide assessment. The responsible bodies need to adopt strategies so that they can reduce or overcome the prevailed PIM use among elderly patients. These findings can be instrumental in developing targeted interventions to influence future prescribing practices.





Potentially inappropriate drug usage ;Beers criteria 2015;Elderly patients


Salwe KJ, Kalyansundaram D, Bahurupi Y. A study on polypharmacy and potential drug-drug interactions among elderly patients admitted in department of medicine of a tertiary care hospital in puducherry. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2016;10(2):FC06-FC10.

Chiapella LC, Menna JM, Mamprin ME. Potentially Inappropriate Medications in Elderly Ambulatory Patients : A Comparative Study between a Primary Health Care Center and a Community Pharmacy. Value in Health regional issues Journal. 2018;17:119-125.

Fick DM, Semla TP, Steinman M, et al. American Geriatrics Society 2019 Updated AGS Beers Criteria® for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults. Journal of American Geriatric Society. 2019;67(4):674-694.

Aparasu RR, Mort JR. Inappropriate prescribing for the elderly: Beers criteria-based review. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2000;34(3):338-46.

Khamis S, Abdi AM, Uzan A, Basgut B. Applying Beers Criteria for elderly patients to assess rational drug use at a university hospital in Northern Cyprus. Journal of pharmacy and bioallied sciences. 2019;11(2):133.

American Geriatrics Society 2015 Beers Criteria. American Geriatrics Society 2015 updated beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of American Geriatric Society. 2015;63(11):2227-2246.

Saka SA, Nlooto M, Oosthuizen F. American Geriatrics Society-Beers Criteria and adverse drug reactions: a comparative cross-sectional study of Nigerian and South African older inpatients. Clinical interventions in aging. 2018;13:2375.

Yoon SJ, Kim JS, Jung JG, Ahn SK, Song YS, Bae NK,et al,. Factors associated with potentially harmful drug–drug interactions in older Korean people: A population‐based study. Geriatrics and gerontology international. 2018; 18(9):1378-82.

Chun JC, Appel SJ, Simmons S. 2015 Beers criteria medication review in assisted living facilities. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners. 2018 ;30(11):648-54.

Kose E, Hirai T, Seki T. Change in number of potentially inappropriate medications impacts on the nutritional status in a convalescent rehabilitation setting. Geriatrics and gerontology international. 2019;19(1):44-50.

Bo M, Quaranta V, Fonte G, Falcone Y, Carignano G, Cappa G. Prevalence, predictors and clinical impact of potentially inappropriate prescriptions in hospital‐discharged older patients: A prospective study. Geriatrics and gerontology international. 2018;18(4):561-8.

Bazargan M, Smith JL, King EO. Potentially inappropriate medication use among hypertensive older African-American adults. BMC geriatrics. 2018;18(1):238.

Al-Azayzih A, AlAmoori R, Altawalbeh SM. Potentially inappropriate medications prescribing according to Beers criteria among elderly outpatients in Jordan: a cross sectional study. Pharmacy Practice. 2019;5:1439-1439.

Patel R, Zhu L, Sohal D, Lenkova E, Koshki N, Woelfel J, Ranson C, Valle-Oseguera CS, Rogan EL. Use of 2015 Beers Criteria medications by older Medicare beneficiaries. The Consultant Pharmacist®. 2018;33(1):48-54.

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