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Clinical Pharmacy in Ethiopia: an experience based literature review

Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula


Understanding the global changes, in 2008, the curriculum was focused towards clinical pharmacy in Ethiopia. To better explain the clinical pharmacy education, practice, and research in Ethiopia, this review was nurtured with my experience at the University of Gondar. The dynamic mutual partnership between Addis Ababa University (AAU) and Howard University, United States of America had resulted in developing clinically-oriented pharmacy curriculum in Ethiopia. Successively, in the year 2015, University of Gondar (UOG) became the second university to launch postgraduate clinical pharmacy program. Clinical pharmacy education in UOG is continuously starving to produce global standard clinical pharmacy workforce. In addition, almost 300 pharmacists and other health workers were trained in providing drug information through drug information center (DIC) and eight satellite DICs were established in various public universities. In UOG hospital, the DIC was established in December 2012. Ethiopia has standard operation procedures (SOP) for pharmacists’ provision of clinical pharmacy services to standardize the practice in all hospitals. Further, of a total of 234 research items identified in Pubmed and nearly half of them (101 papers) were published by clinical pharmacy faculties of UOG. All these indicates, clinical pharmacy in Ethiopia is highly accepted and UOG faculties remained exceptional in terms of quality of education, services, and competent research works. International organizations and institutions should come forward to strengthen and boost clinical pharmacy profession in Ethiopia.


Pharmacy Education; Clinical Pharmacy; Pharm D; Ethiopia, Africa


American College of Clinical Pharmacy. The Definition of Clinical Pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy 2008; 28(6):816-7.

WHO African region: Ethiopia. Available at:

Tsega B, Bhagavathula AS, Sarkar BR, Melaku T, Shewamene Z. impact of clerkship attachments on students' attitude toward pharmaceutical care in Ethiopia. Adv Med Educ Pract 2015;6:385.

Chanie T. Development of Master of Science Degree (msc) Program in Clinical Pharmacy at Postgraduate level at School of Pharmacy Jimma University in Ethiopia. Pharmacotherapy 2015;35(11):e235.

Federal Ministry of Health. Ethiopian Hospital Reform Implementation Guideline, Vol. 1,

Chapter 4: Pharmacy service. Addis Ababa; 2010.

Addis Howard twining partnership. Available:

History of University of Gondar. Available


Sarkar BR. Progress of clinical pharmacy education and practice in Ethiopia: a review. Int J Pharm Res Health Sci 2016;4(1):923-929.

Geremew E, Worku F, Tadeg H, Ejigu E, Mekonnen N. Building Local Capacity for

Clinical Pharmacy Service in Ethiopia through a Holistic In-Service Training Approach.

Submitted to the US Agency for International Development by the Systems for Improved

Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services (SIAPS) Program. Arlington, VA: Management

Sciences for Health; 2014 (Accessed December 28, 2017).

Rochat C. Practice standard for provision of drug information services. SA Association of Hospital and Institutional Pharmacists, March 2000. Available at (Accessed January 1, 2018).

Brief history of drug information centre in Ethiopia. Available at (Accessed 4/1/2018).

Belachew SA, Abegaz TM, Bhagavathula AS, Getachew H, Tefera YG. Evaluation of preceptors and skills achievement by clinical pharmacy clerkship students during their clinical rotations at University of Gondar, Ethiopia. Adv Med Educ Prac 2016;7:187-196.

Melaku T, Srikanth A, Getaye Y, Admasu S, Alkalmi R. Perceptions of pharmacy clerkship students and clinical preceptors regarding preceptors' teaching behaviors at

Gondar University in Ethiopia. J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2016;13:9.

Mekonnen AB, Yesuf EA, Odegard PS, Wega SS. Implementing ward based clinical pharmacy services in an Ethiopian University Hospital. Pharmacy Pract. (Granada) 2013 Jan;11(1):51-57.

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Pharmaceuticals and Services (SIAPS). National Assessment on the Implementation

Status of Clinical Pharmacy Service at Public Hospitals in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: PFSA and SIAPS;

PFSA and SIAPS. Standard Operating Procedures Manual for the Provision of Clinical

Pharmacy Services in Ethiopia, January 2015, Addis Ababa.

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