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Author Guidelines

Instructions to Authors:

The mission of The University of Findlay's publication, Global Health - an Online Journal for the Digital Age, is to provide writing and editing opportunities for students preparing to enter the field of health care in venues that span the globe. Faculty members and guest authors are encouraged to contribute articles that will help students in their quest for knowledge. Student, faculty and guest contributors will use the Journal as a repository for scholarly articles on:

1. Careers in Global Health Care (articles on interesting careers that people, especially young people, have carved out for themselves in various health care settings)

2. Entrepreneurship in Global Health Care (articles on exciting entrepreneurial businesses and initiatives within larger businesses could be featured, especially entrepreneurial businesses and ventures initiated by younger individuals)

3. Having an impact (articles about people, businesses, organizations, or initiatives that are having a demonstrable impact on some facet of global health care and/or people)

4. Alternative Health Care (articles about nontraditional approaches to health care around the globe)

5. Guest article (by a recognized authority)

6. Reviews of health care in various countries

Stylistic Considerations

Style specifications for the Journal must be followed thoroughly. Below are general guidelines for manuscript format and style. If in doubt about style, authors should refer to the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style or consult a recent issue of the Journal.

Text. Manuscripts must be single spaced, Times New Roman 12 number. All fractions must be written as decimal equivalents.

Word Style. Consult a current edition of Webster’s dictionary for guidance on spelling, compounding, and word separation. Foreign words, not in general use, should be italicized. For proper use of chemical and biochemical terms, mathematical equations and expressions, special symbols, subscripts, superscripts, or Greek letters, please refer to the AMA Manual of Style.

Capitalization. When the word “journal” is capitalized and italicized as Journal, it can refer only to the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. In scientific writing, always capitalize the following: major words in titles and headings of manuscripts, designators for tables, figures, and appendices (eg, Appendix 1), eponyms (but not the noun that follows them, eg, Gram stain, Babinski sign), names of tests (eg, Beck Depression Inventory), genus names of organisms (but not the name of species, varieties or subspecies), acts of legislation (eg, Medicare), awards (eg, Nobel Prize), proprietary names (eg, Xerox copier), the title of a person when followed by the person’s name (eg, Chair John W. Jones), official names of organizations and institutions (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), geographic places (eg, United States of America), sociocultural designations (eg, Republicans, French people), and historical events (eg, Vietnam War).

Abbreviations. In instances where repeated use of an organization or chemical name would become awkward, an official or accepted abbreviation may be substituted. The abbreviation should be placed in parentheses immediately following the first use of the name in the main body of the text. Abbreviations of common pharmaceutical associations or organizations do not require periods or spaces between letters (eg, AACP). Abbreviations of “eg,” and “ie,” and “et al” should not be separated by periods. The names of US states and countries should be spelled out when they stand alone (eg, “...pharmacists throughout the United States...”). Do not use postal abbreviations for states in the text. The abbreviation “US” may be used as a modifier only when it directly precedes the word it modifies (eg, US health policies). Otherwise, it should be spelled out. The names of all other cities, states, provinces, and countries should be spelled out when they occur within the text of the article. Refer to the AMA Manual of Style for additional rules regarding abbreviations. Abbreviations deemed “dangerous” or “forbidden” by the Joint Commission and/or the Institute for Safe Medication Practices should be avoided (eg, QD, SC, SQ).

Numbers. Numbers 0-9 should be written out in general. In statistical text, Arabic numeral can be used if appropriate. Arabic numerals should also be used with designators (eg, week 1, cohort 2). Numbers 10 and up should be written as Arabic numerals (unless they occur at the beginning of a sentence, in which case they should be spelled out). A number containing a decimal must be styled as an Arabic number. All fractions must be written as decimal equivalents.  

Measurements. The metric system will be used for all measurements; however, conventional units should be used instead of SI units. Do not use periods when abbreviating units of measure.

Reference numbers. Reference numbers cited in the text of an article should be superscript Arabic numerals placed at the end of the sentence, outside the final period or other punctuation. Reference citations should be numbered according to their order of appearance in the manuscript. Subsequent citations to the same reference must be indicated by the same number originally assigned to that reference. Do not place parentheses around reference numbers cited in text.

Manuscript categories


Reviews. Reviews are comprehensive, well-referenced descriptive papers on any health care topic, locally or globally. Reviews should be systematic, include all relevant data, and should not be overly influenced by the opinions and biases of the authors. 
Reviews should not exceed 25 double-spaced pages for all components.

Research Articles. Research articles describe experimental or observational investigations that used formal methods for data collection and reporting of results of studies directly related to any aspect of healthcare delivery, practice or outcome. Research articles should not exceed 25 double- spaced pages for all components.

Commentaries. These manuscripts are descriptive and intended to stimulate reflection and dialogue about issues in any aspect of pharmacy or healthcare. Commentaries are subject to peer and/or editorial review. Commentaries can vary in length from 4 to 12 double-spaced pages, excluding title page and abstract, and must be properly cited.

Letters to the Editor. Letters to the Editor serve as a forum for the expression of ideas or for commenting on matters of interest relevant to previously published articles in the Journal. Letters are also an avenue for critiquing or expanding on the information presented in a previously published manuscript. Authors are required to identify themselves. The editor reserves the right to reject, shorten, excerpt, or edit letters for publication. Letters should not exceed 4 double-spaced pages.

Manuscript Organization

When submitting a manuscript in Editorial Manager, the manuscript document (a Microsoft Word file) should be arranged in the following order starting with a new page for each section: title page, abstract, text, references, tables, figures, and appendices.

Title Page. The title page should include the following information: author(s) names, academic degrees, institution, email, phone number, keywords (up to 5), total number of manuscript pages, total number of tables, and total number of figures. Please include any financial disclosures (if none, specify none), and any conflicts (if none, specify none).

Abstract. For Research Articles, the abstract should include a brief statement (1-3 sentences) for each of the following sections: Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion.
For Reviews, the abstract should include a statement for each of the following sections: Objectives, Findings, and Summary.
Abstracts must not exceed 250 words.

For Commentaries, authors should include an unstructured abstract in paragraph form that does not exceed 150 words. Abstracts are not required for Letters to the Editor.

Manuscript Headings. These should mirror abstract headings, with the addition of Introduction and Discussion sections and one allowable subheading per section.

Page Numbering. Beginning with the title page, manuscripts should include page numbering at the bottom center of each page.

Main Body of Text.
Introduction: should provide the context for the article, the objective of the study, and should state the hypothesis or research question, how and why the hypothesis was developed, and why it is important. It should generally not exceed 2 to 3 paragraphs. Methods: should include: (1) study design or type of analysis and dates/period of study; (2) details of sample (eg, participants and setting from which they were drawn, inclusion/exclusion criteria); (3) outcome measures or observations; and (4) statistical analysis. Methods sections should be written in the past tense voice.
Results: should be specific and relevant to the research hypothesis. Characteristics of the study participants should be followed by presentation of results. This section should NOT include implications or weaknesses of the study, but should include validation measures if conducted as part of the study. Results should not discuss the rationale for the statistical procedures used. Data in tables and figures should NOT be duplicated in the text. For a detailed description of data presentation, click here.

Discussion: should be a formal consideration and critical examination of the study. The research question or hypothesis should be addressed. Results should be compared or contrasted to those of other studies. Limitations and generalizability of the results should be discussed, as well as mention of unexpected findings with suggested explanations. Type of future studies needed, if appropriate, should be mentioned.

Conclusion: should include only conclusions directly supported by results, taking into account limitations. Include implications avoid speculation and overgeneralization. Indicate whether additional study is required before the information should be used. Give emphasis to positive and negative findings of equal merit.
General: subheadings are acceptable in Commentaries and Reviews but should be avoided in Research papers.

Acknowledgments: If listed, acknowledgments should appear after the conclusion or summary of the manuscript and explicitly state what the person being acknowledged has contributed to the manuscript. Funding/support and any other disclosures should also be included in this section.

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If this article is written by a student, it has the support of a faculty member who is named in the document.

Copyright Notice


a.     The Author shall procure, at the Author’s expense on the form(s) provided by Global Health Online, written permission to include in the Article any copyrighted material as well as any other material for which permission is necessary in connection with the Author’s warranty.  The Author shall deliver to the journal an executed copy of all such permissions with the complete manuscript for the Article.

b.     The Author shall notify Global Health Online in writing of the existence and location of all material taken from documents prepared and published by the United States government, and therefore not subjected to copyright, when it constitutes a significant portion of the Article.

Editorial Changes

The editors of Global Health Online may make such changes (e.g., format, grammar, clarification) in the Article as they consider desirable, as long as it does not change the meaning, but the Author shall be advised of any major changes in the Article.

Author’s Warranty

The Author represents and warrants to the Global Health Online that: the Author has full power and authority to enter into this agreement; that the Article is original except for material in the public domain and such excerpts from other works as may be included with the written permission of the copyright owners; that the Article does not contain any libelous or obscene material or injurious formulas, dosages, drugs, medications, and remedies; that the Article does not infringe any trade names, trademark, or copyright; and that the Article does not invade or violate any right of privacy, personal or proprietary right, or other common law or statutory right.  The Author agrees to indemnify Global Health Online, its editors and The University of Findlay and hold them harmless from any and all losses, damages, liabilities, costs, charges, and expenses, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, arising out of any breach of any of the Author’s representations and warranties contained in this Agreement or third-party claims relating to the matters covered by these representations and warranties.


The Author hereby grants and assigns to Global Health Online all exclusive rights to the Article comprised in the copyright under the copyright laws of the United States, foreign countries, and international copyright conventions.


The editors of Global Health Online reserve the right to determine who shall revise the Article in any revised edition of the Work.  If, in the editors of Global Health Online’s sole discretion, significant portions of the Article are used by a reviser who is not the Author, the Author shall be given credit with respect to that revision as the original preparer of the Article and the reviser shall receive credit as the reviser of the Article.

Privacy Statement

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